What is Vision Therapy?

What is "Four Circles"?

Vision Therapy​​ is a curriculum of activities prescribed by optometrists to give patients the opportunity to develop visual skills they need for comfort and success.

Each patient learns to use their visual abilities in new and more efficient ways through the use of lenses, prisms, and other instruments.

Patients with inadequate visual skills often experience:
Difficulty learning to read and poor comprehension
Poor and inconsistent handwriting
Inability to complete work on time
Headaches often after near work
Eye strain, red eyes, itching eyes
Attention deficits and other behavioral problems
Poor coordination and inconsistent sports performance

Many conditions consistently involve visual difficulties and respond well to Vision Therapy. These include:
Developmental delays
Traumatic Brain Injury
Post stroke
ADD and ADHD
Special needs including Autism Spectrum Disorders
Amblyopia and strabismus
Allergies and recurrent ear infections
Injuries that affect posture

Arthur Marten (A.M.) Skeffington (1890 - 1976) was an American optometrist known as "the father of behavioral optometry". Skeffington has been credited as co-founding the Optometric Extension Program (OEP). In the mid-1950s, Skeffington first diagrammed his "four circles" model of describing visual processing.​ This venn diagram decribes "vision" as the culmination of combined sensory components that an individual uses to inform him/herself (1) where he/she is, (2) where it is, (3) what is it, and (4) what it is called. Skeffington was well known for his extensive vocabulary and used other terms to name each of these compontents.​​

​All Vision Therapy procedures prescribed incorporate this model in order to help each patient create the necessary meaningful experience to utilize their visual system to maximum potential.

Follow the links below to learn more about Vision Therapy



To find an optometrist who understands vision and learning near you, visit:
Optometric Extension Program (OEPF)
College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD)


For professional papers and research, visit:
Optometric Extension Program Reference Center (OEPF)